From winter beaches to summer moorland and woodland, Wales provides essential habitats for waders.
There are over forty WaderTales blogs so far. Here’s a selection that may well appeal to birdwatchers in Wales.
Winter beaches & estuaries
Wales holds important populations of waders in the wintertime – everything from Bar-tailed Godwits from Siberia to Turnstones from Canada. Some of the Oystercatchers seen in sites such as the Burry Inlet or the Menai Strait are from Iceland, where they can be found alongside Redshanks and Golden Plover that have also arrived from the north. They emphasise the close links between Wales and Iceland when it come to birdlife. Migratory decisions for Icelandic Oystercatchers explains how a new project is examining the costs and benefits of being a migrant. Welsh reports of Icelandic colour-ringed birds are helping to provide answers.
Here’s where Oystercatchers that breed or were raised in Iceland have been reported across Britain & Ireland:
Interestingly, while there are similar links between Ireland and Iceland, the migratory provenance of Welsh Snipe may be very different to that of Irish ones. A quarter of foreign-ringed Snipe reported in Ireland have been found to be wearing Icelandic rings but, so far, no Reykjavik-ringed Snipe have been spotted in Wales. Snipe & Jack Snipe in the UK and Ireland compares the migratory strategies of the two species and laments the decline of Common Snipe, as a breeding species.
Protecting key wintering sites is a high priority when it comes to wader conservation. A recent BTO and WWT project aims to provide better information as to how species as diverse as Dunlin and Shelduck make use of the Severn Estuary. This is important work, with major relevance to discussions as to how power might be generated within the estuary. Tracking waders on the Severn urges birdwatchers to look for colour-marked birds. Initial results, shared at the recent International Wader Study Group conference, indicate that the home range of a Redshank is ten times as big as originally thought. It will be interesting to see what else this study reveals.
Hundreds of Welsh birdwatchers take part in the Wetland Bird Survey and the intensive work involved in periodic Low Tide Counts. These identify and monitor key sites and establish the most important feeding sites within estuaries. Whilst mud and sand-flats are, of course, important to waders, so are roost sites. A place to roost discusses the importance of safe, high-tide roosts, especially in terms of energetics. I had not realised that it has been estimated that the cost of flying to and from roosts might account for up to 14% of a bird’s daily energy expenditure. That’s something to think about next time you see a dog chasing off a flock of roosting waders.
There is exciting work going on in Wales to understand why so many Whimbrel spend time in the country in the spring. Whimbrels on the move summarises a recent paper about the movements of Icelandic, ringed Whimbrel. Since its publication, a new paper has shown that Whimbrel are able to fly between Iceland and west Africa in one jump but that they sometimes need to stop off on the way north. See Very rapid long-distance sea crossing by a migratory bird by José Alves and colleagues.
There’s a blog on the subject of wader migration if you want a quick summary for 40 or more species: Which wader, when and why?
Wales provides homes to many breeding waders, from Ringed Plover on the coast, via Little Ringed Plover and Commons Sandpiper along rivers and into the moorland for Curlew and Dunlin, passing a forest with Woodcock en route. And that’s only giving a mention to half of the country’s breeding wader species.
Starting on salt-marsh, Big-foot and the Redshank nest investigates appropriate cattle stocking levels for successful Redshank breeding. Although the work was undertaken in northwest England, there is no reason to believe that Welsh cattle area any less careful as to where they put their feet. There are several other blogs about Lapwings and Redshank on the WaderTales site.
We are all aware of the issues facing upland waders. The next blog was written to promote a survey in England, looking at the distribution of waders along the moorland/farmland interface, but the stories will have resonance with Welsh birdwatchers. All downhill for upland waders outlines changes to breeding numbers and distributions of waders breeding in England’s uplands.
Is the Curlew really near-threatened? considers the plight of breeding Curlew. It’s easy to understand why RSPB, BTO, GWCT and BirdWatch Ireland are focusing on this species How long will it be until breeding Curlew are lost from Wales, completely?
This blog summarises the threats to breeding Curlew across Great Britain: Curlews can’t wait for a treatment plan.
Research by RSPB in Wales has focused on specific issues relating to grazing: Sheep numbers and Welsh Curlews.
Predation is acknowledged as a major issue for Curlew but is this going to be a problem for Oystercatchers too? Oystercatchers: from shingle beach to roof-tops reveals a significant decline of the species in Scotland, mediated to some extent by range expansion in three dimensions. There’s a specific mention of the Burry Inlet control programme of the 1970s.
The strangest Welsh wader has to be the Woodcock – probing about in winter fields and nesting in forestry plantations. Conserving British-breeding Woodcock focuses on worrying results from the latest GWCT/BTO survey and work to reduce losses during the shooting season.
Hopefully, this summary gives a flavour of some of the issues being faced by Welsh waders and the research to which they are contributing. There are already over 40 blogs in the WaderTales series, with one or two new blogs being produced each month. If you want to know more about wader migration or moult, how volcanoes affect breeding waders in Iceland, why Black-tailed Godwits wear colour-rings or if there are costs to carrying a geolocator have a look here.
Graham (@grahamfappleton) has studied waders for over 40 years and is currently involved in wader research in the UK and in Iceland. He was Director of Communications at The British Trust for Ornithology until 2013 and is now a freelance writer and broadcaster.