Flyway from Ireland to Iceland

There are thirty WaderTales blogs so far. Here’s a selection of ten that may appeal to birdwatchers in Ireland.

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The Ireland to Iceland air link opens in February and does not close until well into May, as swans, geese, ducks, waders, gulls and passerines head north. At the end of June it opens again, with the first failed breeders returning to Ireland. Species such as Oystercatcher and Black-tailed Godwit spend much more of the year in Ireland than they do in Iceland.

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Most Oystercatchers are being ringed with two letter engraved rings, along with two colour-rings: Photo Tómas Gunnarsson

The island of Ireland holds important populations of waders in the wintertime – everything from Grey Plovers from Siberia to Turnstones from Canada – but there is  special relationship with Iceland. It’s the next stopping off point for passage Sanderling, as they fly from Africa to Greenland, and the ultimate destination for lots of wintering birds such as Redshank and Golden Plovers.

Oystercatchers lead the way

A lot of the Oystercatchers seen around Ireland’s coastline breed in Iceland, as has been shown by the Dublin Bay Birds Project. Birds start moving north very early, as shown by the appearance of four yellow-ringed Dublin Bay birds in Tiree before the end of February this year. Migratory decisions for Icelandic Oystercatchers explains how a new Icelandic project is examining the costs and benefits of being a migrant. Irish reports of Icelandic colour-ringed birds are helping to provide answers – and the Dublin Bay birds are providing great additional data.

snipe-1Each autumn, Irish-breeding Snipe are joined by much larger numbers from the north and east. About a quarter of foreign-ringed snipe that have been found in the island of Ireland are of Icelandic origin, compared to just one out of 255 in England. Snipe & Jack Snipe in the UK and Ireland compares the migratory strategies of the two species and laments the decline of Common Snipe, as a breeding species.

whimbrel-mig-fig1Some of the last waders to use the Ireland to Iceland flyway are Whimbrels, many of which stop off in Ireland on spring migration. Whimbrels on the move summarises a paper about the movements of Icelandic, ringed Whimbrel. Since its publication, a new paper has shown that Whimbrel are able to fly between Iceland and west Africa in one jump but that they sometimes need to stop off on the way north. See Very rapid long-distance sea crossing by a migratory bird by José Alves and colleagues.

Black tailed-Godwits

WaderTales was invented as a way of providing feedback to colour-ring readers who focused on Black-tailed Godwits. There are 10 blogs about the species, some of which may well appeal to birdwatchers who have spotted colour-ringed birds anywhere between Belfast Harbour and the Shannon Estuary.

pairs-mapWe are all aware that migration is getting earlier but how does this happen? Monitoring the annual arrival of individual colour-ringed Black-tailed Godwits in Iceland may well have provided an answer. Why is spring migration getting earlier? reveals that it is new recruits into the breeding population that are setting the pace; they are reaching Iceland earlier than previous generations.

Another fascinating story that is revealed by colour-ringing is the synchronous arrival of the two members of breeding pairs of Black-tailed Godwits, even if one wintered in Ireland and the other in France. You can read more here.

Breeding Waders

WaderTales were developed in East Anglia so many of the articles about breeding waders have an English feel to them. Hopefully, some of the blogs will still appeal. Anyone trying to support breeding Lapwing populations might be interested in A helping hand for Lapwings, which also talks about Redshanks.

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There’s an Icelandic focus too and a new blog, which looks at the attitudes of farmers, will resonate with conservationists (scientists, birdwatchers and farmers) who are trying to work together to improve conditions for Irish breeding waders. As Icelandic farming expands, what are farmers prepared to do to support breeding waders, many of which are destined to spend the winter on Irish estuaries. See: Do Iceland’s farmers care about wader conservation?

Ireland – a special place for Curlews

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Curlews fly vast distances to spend the winter on the estuaries of Britain & Ireland (© Graham Catley)

Is the Curlew really near-threatened? considers the plight of breeding Curlew. It’s easy to understand why BirdWatch Ireland, RSPB, BTO and GWCT  are focusing on this species How long will it be until breeding Curlew are lost from Ireland, completely?

The threat to the Curlew is real, especially when set in an international context. Two species of curlew are probably already extinct and other members of the Numeniini (curlews, godwits and Upland Sandpiper) are facing a similar set of problems to those that probably caused the demise of the Eskimo Curlew and Slender-billed Curlew. Why are we losing our large waders? outlines the background to a global problem.

Conservation issues

Hundreds of  birdwatchers take part in the Irish Wetland Bird Survey (Republic) and the Wetland Bird Survey (Northern Ireland). These counts identify and monitor key sites for wintering waders – and wildfowl. Whilst mud  and sand-flats are, of course, important to waders, so are roost sites. A place to roost discusses the importance of safe, high-tide roosts, especially in terms of energetics. It has been estimated that the cost of flying to and from roosts might account for up to 14% of a bird’s daily energy expenditure. That’s something to think about next time you see a dog chasing off a flock of roosting waders.

Further reading

b-stubble-godwitsHopefully, this summary  gives a flavour of some of the issues being faced by Irish waders and the research to which they are contributing. There are already 30 blogs in the WaderTales series, with one or two new blogs being produced each month. If you want to know how volcanoes affect breeding waders in Iceland, why Black-tailed Godwits wear colour-rings or if there are costs to carrying a geolocator have a look here.


GFA in IcelandGraham (@grahamfappleton) has studied waders for over 40 years and is currently involved in wader research in the UK and in Iceland.  He was Director of Communications at The British Trust for Ornithology until 2013 and is now a freelance writer and broadcaster.

Why are we losing our large waders?

A review of the global threats to the world’s Numeniini (curlews, godwits & Upland Sandpiper) has just been published. It does not make for good reading.

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Icelandic Whimbrel in the warm conditions of The Guinea-Bissau

It is estimated that hundreds of thousands of Eskimo Curlews were migrating the full length of the two American continents 150 years ago – but the species is now probably extinct. The Slender-billed Curlew, its old-world cousin, is elusive at best and extinct at worst. According to the most recent global figures (as reported to the Convention on Migratory Species 11th Conference of the Parties, details below), there are estimated to be only 10,000 remaining Bristle-thighed Curlews, 32,000 Far Eastern Curlews and 77,000 Hudsonian Godwits. Why are we losing our large waders?

b-curlewThe perilous plight of members of the curlew family has been highlighted in WaderTales before (see Is the Eurasian Curlew really near-threatened and Dutch Black-tailed Godwit numbers down by nearly 75% for instance). Now, a group of wader/shorebird experts have analysed the wider conservation concerns for this group of large, long-lived waders. In a new review in Bird Conservation International, scientists ask if there are shared threats to the Numeniini (the Upland Sandpiper, eight curlews and four godwits). Can their findings help to explain why so many of these 13 species are at risk or, in the case of the Eskimo Curlew and Slender-billed Curlew, probably already extinct?

The Numeniini

categories2The Numeniini waders span the globe. In the table alongside you can see that the conservation status of the group covers the full range of possible levels, from Eskimo Curlew, the last definite report of which was in 1963, to six species that are listed as being of ‘least concern’ (IUCN criteria). Even these six species are far from safe, according to a new review undertaken by 35 authors, supported by expert opinion from a further 80 shorebird ecologists. The drivers that have led to the declines of several endangered and vulnerable species are already affecting others that are currently categorised as being of ‘least concern’. There’s more about these important caveats further down this blog.

The crisis for the Numeniini is worrying wader biologists, ornithologists and ecologists – and some governments. They are working together to share information, identify gaps in knowledge, drive forward new research and to push for conservation activities that can reduce the pressures on these species, and others that share the same habitats. A key output is a newly-published paper, led by the British Trust for Ornithology’s James Pearce-Higgins but with authors from almost 30 organisations across five continents, who collated knowledge from over 100 experts:

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There is already a great deal of concerted international action to save Numeniini species. This flyer was produced by the East Asian-Australasian Flyway Partnership

A global threats overview for Numeniini populations: synthesising expert knowledge for a group of declining migratory birds. Bird Conservation International. ISSN 0959-2709

The authors are: JAMES W. PEARCE-HIGGINS, DANIEL J. BROWN, DAVID J. T. DOUGLAS, JOSÉ A. ALVES, MARIAGRAZIA BELLIO, PIERRICK BOCHER, GRAEME M BUCHANAN, ROB P CLAY, JESSE CONKLIN, NICOLA CROCKFORD, PETER DANN, JAANUS ELTS, CHRISTIAN FRIIS, RICHARD A. FULLER, JENNIFER A. GILL, KEN GOSBELL, JAMES A. JOHNSON, ROCIO MARQUEZ-FERRANDO, JOSE A. MASERO, DAVID S. MELVILLE, SPIKE MILLINGTON, CLIVE MINTON, TAEJ MUNDKUR, ERICA NOL, HANNES PEHLAK, THEUNIS PIERSMA, FRÉDÉRIC ROBIN, DANNY I. ROGERS, DANIEL R. RUTHRAUFF, NATHAN R. SENNER, JUNID N. SHAH, ROB D. SHELDON, SERGEJ A. SOLOVIEV, PAVEL S. TOMKOVICH and YVONNE I. VERKUIL

A model for collaborative conservation research

Identifying the causes of the problems of the Numeniini is not easy. Species such as the Little Curlew breed in some of the most remote areas of the world, whilst the wintering areas of Bristle-thighed Curlews are spread across the Pacific islands. Understanding the full annual cycle requires international cooperation, willingly provided by scientists and volunteer ornithologists who share a common concern about these species.

iwsgOne of the key elements of the paper-production process was a workshop at the 2013 International Wader Study Group conference in Wilhelmshaven, Germany. This was led by Nicola Crockford, Principal Policy Officer at RSPB, James Pearce-Higgins (BTO), Daniel Brown (RSPB), David Douglas (RSPB) and Jennifer Gill (University of East Anglia). It was preceded by a questionnaire survey of experts throughout the world, conducted by Daniel Brown and funded by RSPB. This two-stage process brought together information relating to population trends, demographic parameters (e.g. nesting success and survival rates) and actual/potential conservation threats.

cop11James, Dan and David refined the summary, bringing it together as a ‘Conservation Statements for Numeniini Species’ which was presented to the 11th Conference of the Parties of the Convention on Migratory Species in Quito, Ecuador in 2014 (CMS COP11). This report, authored by Daniel Brown, Nicola Crockford and Robert Sheldon and published on behalf of BirdLife International and the International Wader Study Group is available here.

In the figure below you can see a snapshot of the range of information that is available in the Conservation Statements, in this case for Black-tailed Godwit . In particular, this COP11 document provided background information for two species for which CMS Concerted and Cooperative Actions were being proposed – Far Eastern Curlew and Bar-tailed Godwit. It also painted a backdrop to the CMS Programme of Work on Migratory Birds and Flyways.

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The new BCI paper aims to highlight the crises facing the Numeniini, to outline the suite of threats to the group and to promote this collaborative form of expert-led synthesis. It contains details as to how the questionnaire and workshop sessions were organised – information that will hopefully be of use to scientists studying other groups and taxa.

Findings of the review

In order to help inform conservation management and policy responses, James Pearce- Higgins and his collaborators have reviewed the threats that members of the Numeniini face across migratory flyways. They show that most threats are increasing in intensity. This is particularly the case in non-breeding areas, where habitat loss (resulting from residential and commercial development), aquaculture, mining, transport, disturbance, problematic invasive species, pollution and climate change were regarded as having the greatest detrimental impact. Fewer threats (mining, disturbance, problematic non-native species and climate change) were identified as widely affecting breeding areas.

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An endangered Far Eastern Curlew in Australia

Numeniini populations face the greatest number of non-breeding threats in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway, especially those associated with coastal reclamation. Related threats were also identified across the Central and Atlantic Americas, and East Atlantic flyways. Threats on the breeding grounds were greatest in Central and Atlantic Americas, East Atlantic and West Asian flyways. Based on these threats, several key actions were proposed:

Three priority actions for monitoring and research:

  • To monitor breeding population trends (which for species breeding in remote areas may best be achieved through surveys at key non-breeding sites).
  • To deploy tracking technologies to identify migratory connectivity.
  • To monitor land-cover change across breeding and non-breeding areas.
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The East Asian-Australasian Flyway Partnership is a key focus for conservation action

Two priority actions focus on conservation and policy responses:

  • To identify and effectively protect key non-breeding sites across all flyways (particularly in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway).
  • To implement successful conservation interventions at a sufficient scale across human-dominated landscapes for species’ recovery to be achieved.

If implemented urgently, these measures, in combination, have the potential to alter the current population declines of many Numeniini species.

What is in the BCI paper?

As well as outlining a methodology which may well provide a template for the conservation of other groups of threatened species, the paper contains a comprehensive assessment of the global and local threats faced by the Numeniini. The discussion is the largest section – covering disturbance, development, pollution, terrestrial land-use change & predation, climate change impacts & mitigation, and hunting & harvesting. It provides an opportunity to assess the scientific evidence that supports expert opinion and usefully acknowledges some key gaps worthy of further investigation (e.g. drivers of change in the Central Asian Flyway and uncertainty over the population-level impacts of disturbance).

To summarise in a few bullet points:

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    Bar-tailed Godwits in the Yellow Sea. Another large slice of mudflat disappears as a new sea-wall is built. Read more here.

    37 populations of curlews, whimbrels, godwits and upland sandpiper are assessed.

  • Of the 13 species, seven are of conservation concern (from near-threatened to possibly extinct).
  • Most of the threats identified by the expert panel are considered to be increasing in intensity, especially in non-breeding areas.
  • A greater range of threats was reported in non-breeding areas than breeding areas.
  • Numeniini using the East Asian-Australasian Flyway face the greatest number of non-breeding range threats that were identified.
  • The greatest threat, particularly in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway, appears to be the large-scale development of key passage and non-breeding sites in coastal zones.

Quite why population declines are so common and severe in the Numeniini group is not yet clear but their large body size, low breeding rate and a consequent reliance on high annual survival rates may make them particularly vulnerable to changes in land use and habitat availability across their migratory ranges. The authors hope that this publication will provide a platform for the necessary research and monitoring, to identify and address specific threats, and that continued international collaboration will help this process.

Least Concern? Not really?

The phrase ‘Least Concern’ may be misleading. Although half of the species covered in this review (6 out of 13) are still classified by IUCN/BirdLife as being of ‘Least Concern’ there are important caveats for these species within the COP11 report. Bar-tailed Godwit was classified as ‘Least Concern’ until a few months ago, when a major, sudden drop in adult survival for two populations (menzbieri & baueri) using the East-Asian Australian Flyway was reported. The current list of ‘Least Concern’ species is:

Upland Sandpiper – Declining nesting success is being recorded.

Whimbrel – Up to nine subspecies have been described, four of which are declining in number. Demographic trends are completely unknown for five subspecies.

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Little Curlew – Population is only 180,000 and numbers may be declining.

Long-billed Curlew – Numbers appear to be stable (only 160,000) but there have been previous extinctions in 7 US states and large parts of Canada.

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Satellite-tracking is being used to establish migration routes and stop-over areas for several members of the Numeniini. This is a Marbled Godwit.

Marbled Godwit – Only an estimated 174,000 individuals remain. Two of the three breeding populations are made up of only 2,000 individuals each.

Hudsonian Godwit – Only an estimated 77,000 remain, with a decline in the major Canadian population, where there has been reduced nesting & fledging success.

These caveats suggest that none of the 13 species of Numeniini can be considered to be safe. The fact that the threats to the six species of ‘Least Concern’ are the same ones that have driven the other seven species further up the ‘endangered’ scale – and even to extinction – is extremely worrying.

You can read the full paper here:

A global threats overview for Numeniini populations: synthesising expert knowledge for a group of declining migratory birds. James W Pearce-Higgins et al. Bird Conservation International. ISSN 0959-2709


GFA in Iceland

WaderTales blogs are written by Graham Appleton, to celebrate waders and wader research.  Many of the articles are based on previously published papers, with the aim of making wader science available to a broader audience.

@grahamfappleton

Wales: a special place for waders

From winter beaches to summer moorland and woodland, Wales provides essential habitats for waders. 

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There are thirty WaderTales blogs so far. Here’s a selection of ten that may well appeal to birdwatchers in Wales.

Winter beaches & estuaries

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Most Oystercatchers are being ringed with two letter engraved rings, along with two colour-rings: Photo Tómas Gunnarsson

Wales holds important populations of waders in the wintertime – everything from Bar-tailed Godwits from Siberia to Turnstones from Canada. Some of the Oystercatchers seen in sites such as the Burry Inlet or the Menai Strait are from Iceland, where they can be found alongside Redshanks and Golden Plover that have also arrived from the north. They emphasise the close links between Wales and Iceland when it come to birdlife.  Migratory decisions for Icelandic Oystercatchers explains how a new project is examining the costs and benefits of being a migrant. Welsh reports of Icelandic colour-ringed birds are helping to provide answers.

snipe-1Interestingly, while there are similar links between Ireland and Iceland, the migratory provenance of Welsh Snipe may be very different to that of Irish ones. A quarter of foreign-ringed Snipe reported in Ireland have been found to be wearing Icelandic rings but, so far, no Reykjavik-ringed Snipe have been spotted in Wales. Snipe & Jack Snipe in the UK and Ireland compares the migratory strategies of the two species and laments the decline of Common Snipe, as a breeding species.

Protecting key wintering sites is a high priority when it comes to wader conservation. A new BTO and WWT project aims to provide better information as to how species as diverse as Dunlin and Shelduck make use of the Severn Estuary. This is important work, with major relevance to discussions as to how power might be generated within the estuary. Tracking waders on the Severn urges birdwatchers to look for colour-marked birds. Initial results, shared at the recent International Wader Study Group conference, indicate that the home range of a Redshank is ten times as big as originally thought. It will be interesting to see what else this study reveals.

horse-and-flockHundreds of Welsh birdwatchers take part in the Wetland Bird Survey and the intensive work involved in periodic Low Tide Counts. These identify and monitor key sites and establish the most important feeding sites within estuaries. Whilst mud  and sand-flats are, of course, important to waders, so are roost sites. A place to roost discusses the importance of safe, high-tide roosts, especially in terms of energetics. I had not realised that it has been estimated that the cost of flying to and from roosts might account for up to 14% of a bird’s daily energy expenditure. That’s something to think about next time you see a dog chasing off a flock of roosting waders.

Passing through

whimbrel-mig-fig1There is exciting work going on in Wales to understand why so many Whimbrel spend time in the country in the spring. Whimbrels on the move summarises a recent paper about the movements of Icelandic, ringed Whimbrel. Since its publication, a new paper has shown that Whimbrel are able to fly between Iceland and west Africa in one jump but that they sometimes need to stop off on the way north. See Very rapid long-distance sea crossing by a migratory bird by José Alves and colleagues.

Breeding Waders

Wales provides homes to many breeding waders, from Ringed Plover on the coast, via Little Ringed Plover and Commons Sandpiper along rivers and into the moorland for Curlew and Dunlin, passing a forest with Woodcock en route. And that’s only giving a mention to half of the country’s breeding wader species.

CattleStarting on salt-marsh, Big-foot and the Redshank nest investigates appropriate cattle stocking levels for successful Redshank breeding. Although the work was undertaken in northwest England, there is no reason to believe that Welsh cattle area any less careful as to where they put their feet. There are several other blogs about Lapwings and Redshank on the WaderTales site.

We are all aware of the issues facing upland waders. The next blog was written to promote a survey in England, looking at the distribution of waders along the moorland/farmland interface, but the stories will have resonance with Welsh birdwatchers. All downhill for upland waders outlines changes to breeding numbers and distributions of waders breeding in England’s uplands.

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Curlews fly vast distances to spend the winter on the estuaries of Britain & Ireland (© Graham Catley)

Is the Curlew really near-threatened? considers the plight of breeding Curlew. It’s easy to understand why RSPB, BTO, GWCT and BirdWatch Ireland are focusing on this species How long will it be until breeding Curlew are lost from Wales, completely?

Predation is acknowledged as a major issue for Curlew but is this going to be a problem for Oystercatchers too? Oystercatchers: from shingle beach to roof-tops reveals a significant decline of the species in Scotland, mediated to some extent by range expansion in three dimensions. There’s a specific mention of the Burry Inlet control programme of the 1970s.

The strangest Welsh wader has to be the Woodcock – probing about in winter fields and nesting in forestry plantations. Conserving British-breeding Woodcock focuses on worrying results from the latest GWCT/BTO survey and work to reduce losses during the shooting season.

Further reading

Hopefully, this summary  gives a flavour of some of the issues being faced by Welsh waders and the research to which they are contributing. There are already 30 blogs in the WaderTales series, with one or two new blogs being produced each month. If you want to know how volcanoes affect breeding waders in Iceland, why Black-tailed Godwits wear colour-rings or if there are costs to carrying a geolocator have a look here.


GFA in IcelandGraham (@grahamfappleton) has studied waders for over 40 years and is currently involved in wader research in the UK and in Iceland.  He was Director of Communications at The British Trust for Ornithology until 2013 and is now a freelance writer and broadcaster.

WaderTales: a taste of Scotland

Here are four uniquely-Scottish WaderTales blogs to read:

scottish-wadertalesEstablishing breeding requirements of Whimbrel  focuses on the different habitat needs of adults and chicks in Shetland.

Oystercatchers: from shingle beach to roof-tops details significant declines in Scotland, at least partly explained by predation. An increasing number have now taken to nesting on roofs.

UK Dotterel numbers have fallen by 57% presents the results of an RSPB survey that was published in Bird Study.

Prickly problems for waders explains how SNH are trying to deal with introduced Hedgehogs in the Outer Hebrides, where they are a major problem for breeding waders.

And here are another six which may well appeal to Scottish birdwatchers:

  • NEWS and Oystercatchers focuses on the waders that  winter on coasts, instead of estuaries. It was written to promote the 205/16 coastal survey run by BTO.
  • A place to roost discusses the importance of safe, high-tide roosts, especially in terms of energetics. What are waders looking for?

There are 30 WaderTales blogs. The intention is to add one or two new blogs each month. You can sign up to receive an e-mail notification when a new one is published.


GFA in IcelandGraham (@grahamfappleton) has studied waders for over 40 years and is currently involved in wader research in the UK and in Iceland.  He was Director of Communications at The British Trust for Ornithology until 2013 and is now a freelance writer and broadcaster.

Establishing breeding requirements of Whimbrel

Breeding Whimbrel may be associated with wet heaths but chicks need small pools and ditches too

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One of the advantages for waders (shorebirds) is that parents can lead their chicks to suitable feeding areas almost as soon as they are hatched. This means that the habitat in which parents choose to secrete their nests can be very different to the habitat in which their youngsters will later forage.

ad-for-blogAs part of a study into the potential impacts of a large wind farm proposal on Shetland, a team from Alba Ecology Ltd and Natural Research Projects Ltd collected data on the habitat associations of wader species, particularly Whimbrel, on Mainland Shetland. A new paper, in the BTO journal Bird Study shows that habitats used by Whimbrel chicks for feeding are significantly different to those used by adults for feeding and nesting.

Habitat characteristics of breeding Eurasian Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus on Mainland Shetland, Scotland, UK by Kate Massey, Peter Cosgrove, Fergus Massey, Digger Jackson & Mark Chapman

Fourteen sites across Mainland Shetland were studied, in order to identify the three main requirements of Whimbrel – adult territorial and foraging habitats, nest site habitats and chick feeding habitats. The sites were spread across central and west Mainland Shetland, focusing on areas regularly used by breeding Whimbrel. Between them, these held between 90 and 100 pairs, out of a local total of 150 local pairs.

chick-for-blogWhilst adult Whimbrels used blanket bog, dominated by ling heather, cottongrass and other species associated with wet heath, when both nesting and feeding, the structure of habitats used by chicks was very different. These were characterized by small, wet and often linear features, with plenty of mosses and plants such as purple moor-grass and bulbous rush. The presence of these flashes, ditches and former peat-cuttings may be crucial to the successful breeding of Whimbrels.

Sad times for the Curlew family

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Based on IUCN BirdLife assessments

As outlined in the blog Is the Curlew really near-threatened? we have probably already lost 2 out of 8 of the members of the curlew family – definitely Eskimo Curlew and possibly Slender-billed Curlew. Although Whimbrels are not currently causing official concern, there is certainly a need to be watchful. This paper is therefore an important addition to the written information about the habitat requirements of the species. The conclusions reached by the authors may well be of interest to scientists tackling tricky issues relating to the conservation of European Curlew. Across Wales and Ireland, breeding populations have been decimated (literally).

 Providing the right habitat for Shetland’s Whimbrel

 For Shetland’s Whimbrel, the habitat differences between adult feeding/nesting locations and chick foraging locations were very striking and suggest that the presence of both types of habitat may be of importance. Chicks move out of the heavily grazed open heather areas, in which nests are often made, and into wetter and taller, mixed, and structurally-diverse vegetation, where it is easier to hide from predators such as gulls, corvids and skuas, and to find food. If suitable habitat for Whimbrel chick foraging is limited, then chick growth and survival may be compromised. This paper suggests that management aimed at benefiting breeding Whimbrel needs to address the habitat needs of chicks, in terms of wet features, as well as the habitat needs of adults for foraging and nesting. You can read more in the paper.

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Grazed heather areas (left) are favoured by feeding and nesting adults, while chicks prefer wet flashes (right). Photos: Peter Cosgrove

 Work on other upland wader species has shown that food availability, vegetation structure and cover from predators may at least partly explain habitat preferences of chicks. When tracking Golden Plover families in northern England, Mark Whittingham and colleagues found that chicks selected the edges of marshy habitats. They recommended that drainage ditches should be blocked, in order to provide more suitable feeding habitat. An added benefit of this sort of measure is that more water is held on moorland, which helps to reduce flooding downstream.

Lowland wet grasslands in Broads

Shallow ditches increase Lapwing productivity: Mike Page/RSPB

As Peter Cosgrove, one of the authors of the new paper has commented, “The more I read and discover about wader chicks, the more I see the importance of small, wet flushes with cover – maybe this is a general feature of many species?” As you can read in A helping hand for Lapwings, the provision of wet features, particularly foot-drains, is crucial to the successful fledging of species in a more open landscape.

A matter of scale?

Creating the right habitat mosaic for adults and chicks will depend upon the scale of the movements of family parties of the wader species that is causing conservation concerns. Tómas Gunnarsson reports that family groups of Icelandic Black-tailed Godwits can cover large distances. One brood of small chicks (less than five days old) was found a week later 3 km away. Whimbrels may be able to select areas with suitable nesting and nearby chick-rearing potential or perhaps they can also move their chicks longer distances, if necessary? Research into the movements of family parties might tell us whether moving chicks for a kilometre or more could have adverse consequences, in terms of growth or survival. Presumably, adults would prefer to find the right mix of habitats within relatively close proximity, which suggests that managing grazed heath to provide a suitable mosaic of cover for nests, areas of short vegetation and wet features may be a sensible conservation prescription for Whimbrel.

Habitat characteristics of breeding Eurasian Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus on Mainland Shetland, Scotland, UK by Kate Massey, Peter Cosgrove, Fergus Massey, Digger Jackson & Mark Chapman


GFA in Iceland

WaderTales blogs are written by Graham Appleton, to celebrate waders and wader research.  Many of the articles are based on previously published papers, with the aim of making wader science available to a broader audience.

@grahamfappleton

 

 

 

All downhill for upland waders?

 

Are targeted payments for England’s upland farmers benefiting Curlew, Lapwing, Oystercatcher, Redshank and Snipe?

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The farmed land that fringes our moors provides important habitats for breeding waders (Dawn Balmer)

In the period 1995 to 2013, England lost 32% of its breeding Curlew, 31% of its Redshank, 27% of its Lapwing and 14% of its Snipe, according to the latest Breeding Bird Survey results. The uplands are the main stronghold for Curlew and hold (or used to hold?) significant numbers of the other three declining species. Is the story one of total gloom or are there areas where sensitive farm management and agri-environment payments are successfully supporting waders and other species associated with upland farms? A new survey, funded by Defra and coordinated by BTO aims to find some answers.

The snappily-titled Breeding Waders of English Upland Farmland survey starts in April and volunteers are still needed in many areas. Please visit the BTO website if you may be able to help.

More about the key species:

curle 004 (nest) (Derek Belsey) (A)

Derek Belsey

Curlew (recent 32% decline in England). The species is globally defined as near-threatened and has been added to the red list of conservation concern in the UK. Losses have been particularly severe in Ireland, Northern Ireland and Wales but the distribution is shrinking in England. There’s a WaderTales blog about Curlew here. Is the Curlew really ‘near-threatened’?

Lapwing (recent 27% decline in England). Most of the work to try to understand recent declines in Lapwing numbers has been undertaken on lowland wet grassland, where cooperative mobbing of predators is an important part of the daily routine for parents. In the uplands, where breeding densities are lower, it would not be surprising if predation pressures could be impeding species recovery. There are two WaderTales blogs about these issues. A helping hand for Lapwings and How well do Lapwings and Redshanks grow?

redsh 058 e (Jill Pakenham) (A)

Jill Pakenham

Redshank (recent 31% decline in England). The situation for Redshank is very similar to that for Lapwing, the presence of which may help in predator defence. There is a WaderTales blog about the special issues in the Uists (NW Scotland), where introduced hedgehogs are causing huge problems in this key wader hot-spot. Prickly problems for breeding waders

Snipe (recent 14% decline in England). The survey methods used in the new BWEUF survey are not designed to detect Snipe, which are mostly active at dusk, but the visits should provide useful count and distribution data for an under-researched species.

oyste 066 e (Nigel Clark) (A)

Nigel Clark

Oystercatcher (recent increase of 56% in England). Much of the increase may well be occurring in river valleys and newly created wetlands and gravel pits, rather than in the uplands. We know from the recent Moorland Forum report Understanding Predation that there have been changes in Oystercatcher abundance in much of upland Scotland between 1990 and 2010, potentially linked to predation pressure. It would not be surprising if similar processes operate in the English uplands.

How the BWEUF survey will work

Breeding wader populations in the UK have been a major conservation priority for some years. Declines continue despite the implementation of conservation measures that are designed to deliver appropriate habitats, some of which are supported through agri-environment schemes (AES). While enhanced monitoring of many upland and lowland habitats would be valuable, a particular gap is evident for in-bye farmland. This habitat can be defined as juncus/rush pastures, semi-improved pastures and meadows below the moorland line, although it technically includes all enclosed farmland. Using Defra funding, Natural England has commissioned BTO to run a volunteer-based survey, with RSPB field-staff filling gaps in less accessible areas.

sheep P1240564

Photo: Dawn Balmer

This project will assess the importance of in-bye land for waders, by estimating the total numbers present in these habitats, relative to national estimates measured from Bird Atlas 2007-11 data. More importantly, it will set a baseline against which to measure future change in breeding numbers.  This will be used to assess the success of Environmental Stewardship management, as well as to measure differences in numbers between AES and non-scheme habitats for waders that nest and/or forage on in-bye farmland. The survey will use 2×2km grid squares (tetrads), as in Bird Atlas 2007-11. Volunteers are asked to make two morning visits to each tetrad, one between early April and mid-May and a second before mid-July, with a minimum of a two-week gap between visits. On each visit, volunteers will be asked to survey as many as possible of the fields in this in-bye buffer of 1km below the moorland line. They will walk to within 100m of every part of each field to which they have access, recording all birds seen and heard, noting any display or territorial behaviour and mapping the locations of target wader species.

yelwa 015 e (Jill Pakenham) (A) (2)

There’s an opportunity to record other species of conservation concer, such as this red-listed Yellow Wagtail (Jill Pakenham)

The key features of grassland management and structure, along with other land use, which dictate suitability for waders, will be recorded.  Predation has been identified as one potential driver of population decline – or an impediment to species recovery – so observers will be asked to record avian and non-avian predators.

Birdwatchers do not normally spend much time in this in-bye habitat so here’s an opportunity to capture as much information as possible, especially for any other waders and gamebirds (Black Grouse, Grey Partridge, Pheasant, and Red-legged Partridge). Valuable information can be data can be collected for Cuckoo, Linnet, Meadow Pipit, Reed Bunting, Ring Ouzel, Skylark, Stonechat, Twite, Wheatear, Whinchat and Yellow Wagtail, many of which are red-listed species of conservation concern (and bonus birds on a day’s birdwatching). To view further information on survey methodology follow this link.

In Summary

The wader declines quoted in this article use Breeding Bird Survey data from 1995 but there is evidence of longer-term falls for Curlew (55% since 1975), Lapwing (65%), Redshank (65%) and Snipe (90%). These are worrying numbers and it is to be hoped that the BTO can find enough volunteers for BWEUF, despite the fact that many of the survey squares are a long way from the flat-lands in which most English birdwatchers live. Curlews, Lapwings, Oystercatchers, Redshanks and Snipe are counting on us to count them.


 GFA in Iceland

WaderTales blogs are written by Graham Appleton, to celebrate waders and wader research.  Many of the articles are based on previously published papers, with the aim of making wader science available to a broader audience.

@grahamfappleton

Tracking waders on the Severn

Birdwatchers are being asked to help with some cutting-edge science, simply by reporting sightings of colour-dyed Dunlin and colour-ringed Curlew and Redshank.

Severn 1 WWT (2)

The Severn: an empty estuary or a food-rich haven? (Corinna Blake)

The tides that create unique feeding opportunities for waders and other waterbirds on the Severn can potentially be harnessed to produce large amounts of clean energy. New impact assessment work aims to see how a development that would bring big benefits to the local economy might be carried out with as little negative environmental side-effects as possible.

Colour ringed Curlew by Kane Brides

Birdwatchers are asked to look out for colour-ringed Curlew and Redshank (Kane Brides)

The Severn is a great place for birds, especially waders, attracted to the area by mud that has high densities of mud-loving invertebrates such as ragworms. It is designated as an SPA, because of its importance to wintering species such as Bewick’s Swan, Curlew, Dunlin, Pintail, Redshank and Shelduck, and the spring passage of Ringed Plovers. There’s more about the SPA on the JNCC’s website.

The British Trust for Ornithology and Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust scientists have been awarded a contract to undertake an Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed Cardiff Tidal Lagoon  by Tidal Lagoon Power, with BTO focusing on waders and WWT on ducks. It’s a unique opportunity not only to inform conservation planning but also to answer questions about the winter ecology of some key species. The team aims to:

  • Validate and refine methods developed by Richard Stillman (Bournemouth University) that predict bird distributions from food availability. (It’s easier to map food distribution than to follow bird movements)
  • Understand patterns of movement of species that use the proposed development area and other key sites, such as the Gwent Levels.
  • Track birds in order to identify feeding and roosting areas that are used when birds are hard to observe – in poor weather, at night and at all stages of tide.
  • Work out how mobile birds are, in order to propose ways in which lost feeding opportunities might be replicated as close by as possible.

Tagging

Tag on Curlew back (head covered to keep bird calm) by Lucy Wright

Tags like this should reveal how waders and ducks use the Severn estuary. Curlew by Lucy Wright.

Tagging is an important part of the project. Four-gramme Pathtrack tags are being glued to the backs of a sample of Curlew, Redshank, Shelduck and (hopefully) Shoveler. These should stay on for a couple of months, during which time movements will be logged every 90 minutes and downloaded using UHF receiving stations set up around the Severn. These four species have been chosen because, for each, more than 10% of the estuary’s population lies within the proposed footprint of the tidal lagoon.

Colour-rings

Colour ringed Redshank by Emily Scragg

This colour-ringed Redshank may well breed in Iceland but which areas of mud-flat does it use in the winter? (Emily Scragg)

Tagged Redshank and Curlew are also being colour-ringed, alongside others that are not being tagged. By collecting reports of colour-ringed birds from birdwatchers, the BTO team will be able to monitor the efficacy of the tag down-load process and keep a track of movements when the tags stop transmitting. As an added bonus, the colour-rings may generate some new information about the breeding sites of waders that winter on the Severn.

Sightings of colour-ringed birds would be very much appreciated. Five rings have been used on both Redshank and Curlew. Please submit sightings (date time and ideally a six-figure grid reference) to Emily.scragg@bto.org who would also be interested in “ratio counts” of flocks of birds – simply the number of colour-rings and the size of the flock.

Colour-dyed Dunlin

The Severn Estuary holds an estimated 3.2% of the European wintering population of the alpina race of Dunlin, birds that breed from Siberia across to northern Scandinavia. Dunlin are too small to carry transmitters that can be used with base stations so the team has gone back to traditional picric dye in order to look at the mobility of flocks. Any sightings of colour-marked Dunlin will be appreciated by emily.scragg@bto.org. Where possible, please submit ratio counts broken up into yellow/orange on breast (adults), yellow/orange on the rump (juveniles) and unmarked birds, together with date, time and location (ideally with six-figure reference).

Colour-dyed Shelduck

shelduck Kane Brides

The neck of this tagged Shelduck will be dyed yellow before release (Kane Brides)

It’s not just waders.  Over 3,000 Shelduck winter on the Severn, which is more than 1% of the European population. A sample has been caught by WWT. Ringed birds have a yellow/orange dye mark on the normally white plumage on the neck/upper breast (between the dark green head and the brown breast band). No Shoveler have been caught yet but the aim will be to put a similar dye-mark on these birds too.  Sightings of dye-marked ducks should be reported to Ed.burrell@wwt.org.uk

Impact Assessment

The consortium of organisations that is working on this new tidal-power study is well placed to combine impact assessment with high quality wader science. By focusing on Curlew and Redshank, both red-listed species of conservation concerned, it is to be hoped that more will be learnt about the winter feeding ecology of these two species. The BTO team has already discovered that Redshank fly further at night than was previously thought and hope to get to understand some of the pressures facing Curlew, now classified as globally near-threatened (see separate WaderTales blog)

Severn 4 WWT

The Severn – Gareth Bradbury/WWT

This is not the first impact assessment work that has managed to incorporate research that increases the scientific understanding of wader behaviour and ecology. Two other examples are given below:

The Wash: Back in the 1970s, a plan to build huge reservoirs on the mud flats of the Wash, in which to store fresh water that might meet the growing demands of southeast England, led to a doubling of wader catching activity, intensive studies of their feeding ecology and complementary work on other taxa. Much was learned about the mobility of species within this huge estuary and the turn-over of birds within the annual cycle. A draft copy of the report is available on line at the NERC website 

Cardiff Bay: In the period 1989 to 2003, long-term studies took place to try to understand the impacts of closing Cardiff Bay and hence reducing the amount of tidal feeding area for waders. Following the development, it was shown that Redshank that had been displaced from the Bay were in poorer condition and had lower survival rates in subsequent winters.  There’s a summary on the JNCC website. The papers listed at the bottom of this JNCC web-page are essential reading for anyone trying to counter the ‘birds will simply go elsewhere’ arguments, which are sometimes put forward in favour of development work.


 GFA in Iceland

WaderTales blogs are written by Graham Appleton, to celebrate waders and wader research.  Many of the articles are based on previously published papers, with the aim of making wader science available to a broader audience.

@grahamfappleton

NEWS and Oystercatchers

It’s amazing what you can find when walking along a beach with a pair of binoculars

Curlew in snow

Curlews waiting for the tide to drop: Graham Catley

Thousands of British and Irish birdwatchers visit estuaries but there’s a lot of coastal habitat that gets little attention.  That’s where you’ll find 87% of the UK’s Purple Sandpipers, over half of the Turnstones and nearly half of the Ringed Plover – or those were the figures nine years ago.  It’s time to update these estimates, which is where NEWS-III came in. That’s the catchy name for the third Non-estuarine Waterbird Survey, which operated in the UK and Ireland over the period 1 Dec 2015 to 29 Feb 2016.

CR OYC (1280x772)

We’ll be looking out for colour-ringed Oystercatchers: Tómas Gunnarsson

We covered 6 beach sections as our contribution to NEWS-II over the Christmas period 2006/07: three horrible stretches right next to the main A78 along the Clyde coast and three lovely beaches on the island of Cumbrae. We found 57 waders on the first set, while dodging the traffic, and 184 on a very relaxed day trip from Largs by ferry. There were comparable numbers of Curlew, Turnstone and Redshank but more Oystercatchers on the wider, island beaches.  That’s where we also found our only Ringed Plover, as well as 11 Purple Sandpipers and 3 Lapwing.

cumbrae comparisonThis year, we found far fewer waders than nine years ago. The table alongside provides a comparison for the three sections that we covered on Cumbrae for NEWS II and NEWS III. We failed to find any Purple Sandpipers in any of the 17 sections of the Clyde coast that we covered but were surprised to see a total of 5 Greenshanks. There seemed to be far fewer seabirds too. This is just a tiny snap-shot that may not be representative of the picture across the whole of the coastline of Britain & Ireland. Let’s hope that, despite the stormy weather, there was sufficient coverage for robust anlayses to be carried out by BTO staff.

RP WeBSWe know that wader number on estuaries are changing.  For instance, in the last few years, numbers of Ringed Plover in the UK have been falling (see figure).  The declining line indicates a significant drop but it won’t be quite such a concern if this year’s NEWS-III surveyors find that there are now more Ringed Plovers on open coasts.  That may seem like an optimistic suggestion, unless you look at changes between NEWS (1997/98) and NEWS-II (2006/07).  During this period, at the same time that WeBS counts of estuaries were falling, there was actually a 25% increase in Ringed Plover numbers on open coast.  Perhaps this redistribution from estuaries to open coasts has continued?

NEWS tableTwenty-one species of wader were recorded during NEWS-II, with Oystercatcher being the most numerous with an estimated total of 64,064 for the whole non-estuarine coastline of the UK. The full report is available on the BTO website .  With support from hundreds of volunteer birdwatchers it was possible to make population estimates for the 12 most numerous species, including the non-estuarine specialists, Ringed Plover, Sanderling, Purple Sandpiper and Turnstone.  These four species accounted for estimates of 15,230, 6,295, 11,306 and 30,122 individuals respectively.  The table alongside shows the intertidal-zone totals and the percentage of the total UK population that each estimate comprises, based on Population estimates of birds in Great Britain & the United Kingdom by Musgrove et al which was published in British Birds.

Five of the species that were in the top 12 for NEWS-II have been categorised as near-threatened by IUCN/BirdLife.  Oystercatcher is the most numerous of the five, with over 64,000 in intertidal areas of the open coast, representing nearly 20% of the national wintering population.  There are relatively small numbers of Bar-tailed Godwit, Lapwing and Knot but 26,744 Curlew is equivalent to 17.8% of the UK total.   There’s a WaderTales blog about the near-threatened designation of Curlew.

Turnstone Belsey

59% of the UK’s Turnstone ar found on the open shore: Derek Belsey/BTO

Unfortunately for the scientists who organised NEWS-III there is a huge disparity between the distribution of birdwatchers and the number of coastal stretches that would ideally be surveyed, so let’s hope a good number of English birdwatchers decided to spend a few days in Scotland over the survey period.  Three-quarters of the open coast in the UK is in Scotland (all those crinkly bits, sea-lochs and islands) with Northern Ireland, England and Wales respectively having approximately 2.3%, 16.0% and 6.6%.  Taking account of the spread of the available sites, there’s a relatively uniform UK-wide distribution of most species, although  Sanderling has a southerly bias to its distribution and Purple Sandpiper a strong northern bias.

NEWS-III was not just about waders; volunteers were asked to record other waterbirds too. Our counts for NEWS-II covered Cormorant and Shag, Mute Swan, Eider, Red-breasted Merganser, Wigeon, Mallard, Guillemot and Grey Heron.

oyc table

Data from BTO ringing report

Whilst I was delighted to use WaderTales to promote NEWS-III, there was an ulterior motive. We wanted counters to look out for Oystercatchers wearing colour rings. Icelandic Oystercatchers can be encountered almost anywhere but the ones in England are very much outnumbered by those from Norway, the other main source of wintering birds. The table alongside gives an idea of the north-westerly distribution of birds with an Icelandic origin.

oycmap.pngColour-ringed Icelandic Oystercatchers are part of a new project to look at how climate change might be affecting migration patterns. There’s a blog about the project here. The map alongside shows where colour-ringed birds from the study areas in Iceland have already been found, with most in Scotland and Ireland.  Birds will either be wearing 3 colour-rings and a green or white flag or two colour-rings and an engraved darvik.

NEWS only happens every few years so this was a great opportunity to contribute to our understanding of the conservation status of some important species, several of which are now near-threatened. I am looking forward to the results with interest, and a little concern.


 GFA in Iceland

WaderTales blogs are written by Graham Appleton, to celebrate waders and wader research.  Many of the articles are based on previously published papers, with the aim of making wader science available to a broader audience.

@grahamfappleton

Is the Curlew really ‘near-threatened’?

If a Curlew can live for over 32 years and there are flocks of 1000 in Norfolk, how can they be described as near-threatened? 

Dark times lie ahead for Curlew? (© Graham Catley)

Dark times lie ahead for Curlew? (© Graham Catley)

Thirty years ago there were eight members of the world-wide curlew family but now we may well be down to six.  The planet has lost one species, the Eskimo Curlew, with no verified sightings since the 1980s, and probably the Slender-billed Curlew as well.  Of the others, Far Eastern Curlew and Bristle-thighed Curlew are deemed to be endangered and vulnerable, respectively, and our own Curlews are classed as near-threatened, which is the next level of concern. This may seem strange, especially when flocks of 1000 can be seen on the Norfolk coast.  However, evidence suggests that we should take heed of what is happening to other members of the curlew family, as we consider the future of this evocative species with its wonderful bubbling curl-ew calls.

Threat levels for the eight members of the Curlew family (based on IUCN BirdLife assessments)

Threat levels for the eight members of the Curlew family (based on IUCN/BirdLife assessments)

Our Curlew – more properly called the Eurasian Curlew – was until relatively recently a locally popular game species in Britain, especially in September and October, when birds are reputed to be particularly flavoursome.  A male Curlew is equivalent in weight to a Wigeon (or two Teal) and the bigger female may well be as heavy as a Mallard, so it is not surprising that they were worth targeting.  They came off the British quarry list in 1981.

Map showing movements of ringed curlews. Purple dots indicate where British/Irish ringed birds have been recovered and orange dots show ringing sites of birds found here and wearing foreign rings. Maps of movements can be found on the BTO website at http://www.bto.org/volunteer-surveys/ringing/publications/online-ringing-reports

Purple dots indicate where British/Irish ringed Curlews have been recovered and orange dots show ringing sites of birds found here and wearing foreign rings. Maps of movements can be found at http://www.bto.org/volunteer-surveys/ringing/publications/online-ringing-reports

The Curlews that we see on the Norfolk coast in autumn and winter are drawn from a wide breeding area; some are of British origin but many are from Scandinavia, Finland and Russia.  The Wash Wader Ringing Group recently received a report of a bird that was ringed in Norfolk in September 2000 and recovered in Izhma in Russia in May 2014.  At 3300 km (2000 miles) this is nearly as far away as the furthest east dot on the map of Curlew recoveries, shown here and published on the website of the British Trust for Ornithology.  The bird was an adult when ringed so must have been at least 15 years old when shot.  This seems like a good age for a Curlew but is less than half of the British longevity record, set by a chick ringed in Lancashire in 1978 and found dead on the Wirral in 2011.

Curlew mortality is higher in severe winters (© Graham Catley)

Curlew mortality is higher in severe winters (© Graham Catley)

Curlew numbers on the Wash, which sits between the counties of Norfolk and Lincolnshire, increased dramatically when shooting ceased in 1981, although milder winters could have also have been influential.  In the five years immediately before the ban, the average maximum, winter Wetland Bird Survey count on the Wash was 3281, rising to 9642 in the period 2006/07 to 2010/11.  There were similar increases on the North Norfolk coast and a bit further south at Breydon Water.  The broader, national picture is one of increase between 1981 and 2001, although generally at a lower level to that seen in Norfolk, followed by a steady, shallow decline.  If numbers are higher than they once were does this mean that we should be less concerned about Curlews – and what is the justification of the species’ near-threatened designation?

Curlews fly vast distances to spend the winter on the estuaries of Britain & Ireland (© Graham Catley)

Curlews fly vast distances to spend the winter on the estuaries of Britain & Ireland (© Graham Catley)

Conserving migratory species is difficult because individuals rely on different resources in different countries at different stages of the year.  For Curlews, there is evidence that breeding season problems are at the heart of large decreases in numbers in Russia, through the Baltic and into The Netherlands – the countries from which much of the wintering population on the east coast is drawn.  According to the European Commission’s species management plan, drivers of decline include wide-scale intensification of grassland management for milk production, land-abandonment and increased predation in some areas.  Autumn, winter and spring hunting is thought to have had a lesser but contributory effect to the long-term losses, with hunters across the European Community shooting between 3% and 4% of the population each year.  In the last twenty years, within the EC, hunting of Curlew has been confined to Ireland, Northern Ireland and France.  Much of this shooting pressure was and is in France, where coastal hunting of Curlew has been reinstated after a five year moratorium.

curlew webpageFocusing on Britain and Ireland, we have seen major losses in our breeding populations.  In Ireland, the Curlew population is estimated to have dropped from 5000 to 200 pairs in the twenty years between 1991 and 2011, and there has been an 80% decline in Wales.  There’s more about these distributional changes in a 2012 article written for the BTO website.

Curlew productivity in several areas appears to be very low and it is possible that the adults we are seeing are part of an ageing population.  As has been shown in seabirds, counts of adults can give a false sense of security, as it is easy not to notice that there is little recruitment of new, breeding adults into the population, with obvious long-term consequences.

Graph shows the changing Curlew population in Great Britain (Wetland Bird Survey)

Graph shows the changing Curlew population in Great Britain (Wetland Bird Survey)

The decline in the number of breeding Curlew in Great Britain is clearly reflected in monthly, winter counts undertaken by volunteers on west coast estuaries.  On the Dee, for instance, the average peak-winter count dropped from 6109 in the early 1970s to 4348 in the five years after the shooting ban, rose to 5081 in the late 1990s but then slipped back to 3802.

With relatively few continental birds, the Wetland Bird Survey trend reflects more local declines

With relatively few continental birds, the Wetland Bird Survey trend reflects more local declines

In Ireland and Northern Ireland, a total ban on shooting Curlew was announced in 2012, brought in once it was clear that the estimated November harvest of between 6% and 8% was unsustainable and set against a background of the collapse of the local breeding populations.  The same local reasoning lies behind continuing protection in Wales, western England and in much of Scotland, especially at a time when financial support to land-managers is being used to try to bolster British breeding numbers.  In eastern England, Curlew conservation has a more international flavour, as we provide a safe haven for birds from as far away as Russia.

Britain & Ireland, between them, provide winter homes for half of the Europe-wide population of Curlews (about 210,000 out of 420,000), with the Netherlands holding 140,000 birds.  There are also significant flocks in Germany and about 20,000 in France.  These may seem like reasonable numbers but, given that fewer chicks are being raised, the number of adults is declining, two close relatives have been driven to extinction and other curlew species are in trouble, the label of near-threatened seems highly appropriate.

We should be proud of our wintering Curlews in Great Britain, where numbers have stabilised, albeit at a level that is 20% lower than at the turn of the century, but there is no room for complacency in Northern Ireland, where the decline continues.

Addendum: Curlew was added to the red list of the UK’s Birds of Conservation Concern on 3 December 2015

On autumn high tides, flocks of Curlew roost on east coast stubble fields (© Graham Catley)

On an autumn high tide, a flock of Curlew roosts on an east coast stubble field (© Graham Catley)


 GFA in Iceland

WaderTales blogs are written by Graham Appleton, to celebrate waders and wader research.  Many of the articles are based on previously published papers, with the aim of making wader science available to a broader audience.

@grahamfappleton